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Me uru ngā tikanga Māori ki te ture – Nukutawhiti

Pō ngā rā, i pō ngā rā

Ka tataki mai te whare o ngā ture

Ka whiria

Te Māori, ka whiria rā

Ngau nei ōnā tāke

Ngau nei ōnā reiti, āhaha

Tē taea te ueue!

 

Ka tīmata ake tēnei kōrero ki te haka rongonui e kīa nei, ko ‘Te Kiringutu’. I te tau 1870, nā Tuta Nihoniho o Ngāti Porou i haka ēnei kupu i mua i te Kōti ā-rohe. I pukuriri katoa ia ki ngā pānga a te ture ki runga i tōna iwi. I aua wā, ka whakamahia te ture ki te raupatu i ngā whenua Māori, ki te pēhi i te iwi Māori huri noa i te motu. Kua roa te wā i pēnei ai ēnei āhuatanga o te ture. Otirā, i takahia e te Karauna, e ngā kōti hoki ki runga i ngā tikanga Māori, ki runga i te Tiriti o Waitangi anō hoki. Nō reira, nā te kati a te ture te iwi Māori i pēhia ai. 

 

Nāwai rā, ā, ka tīmata te ao ture ki te whai whakaaro i te mana o te ao Māori ki roto i te ture. Pērā i ngā kōti, i te kēhi Takamore v Clarke, i whai whakaaro te Kōti Mana Nui ki te mana o te whānau ki te whakatau ki hea tāpuke ai tā rātou tūpāpaku. E ai ki ngā kaiwhakawā, e whai take ana ngā tikanga Māori ki ngā ture o te motu. I tērā tau tonu, kua hoki atu anō te Kōti Mana Nui ki ngā tikanga Māori i te kēhi Ellis v R. I whai whakaaro ngā kaiwhakawā ki te mana o te tangata whai muri atu i tōna matenga. Kei te Kōti ā-Rohe tētahi tauira anō. Nā Chief Judge Heemi Taumaunu i whakatakoto te whakakitenga hōu mō te Kōti ā-Rohe e pai ai ngā pūnaha a te kōti. Ko te whāinga a Chief Judge Taumaunu kia tōia ai te Kōti ā-Rohe mai i te pō, ki te ao mārama. Mō te aha? Hei painga mō te iwi. 

 

Nō reira, kei te wānangatia e ngā kōti te whaipānga a ngā tikanga Māori i te ao ture. Me whakarite ngā rōia ki te mōhio i ngā tikanga Māori, ahakoa he rōia Māori, ahakoa he rōia Pākehā. Heoi anō, ehara i te mea kei ngā kōti noa iho tēnei whakatupu a ngā tikanga Māori me te ture. Kua tīmata anō hoki ngā kura rōia ki te whai whakaaro i ngā tikanga Māori ki roto i te akomanga. I te rā 7 o Mei i tēnei tau, i whakatau te New Zealand Council of Legal Education (CLE), me whakaako ngā kura rōia katoa i ngā tikanga Māori ki roto i ngā pepa matua o te tohu ture. Ā tērā tau, ka whakamanatia te whakatau nei. Nō reira, mehemea e whai ana koe ki te tohu ture, ka ako, ka wānanga hoki i ngā tikanga Māori. 

 

E tautoko ana ahau ki tēnei whakatau nō te mea ko ngā kura rōia te kūaha ki te ao ture. Ki te whai mahi rōia, i te tuatahi me whakaputa tō ihu ki roto i tētahi kura rōia o Aotearoa. He roa ngā tau ki te kura rōia; e whā, e rima rānei ngā tau kia tutuki ai ngā whāinga o tēnei tohu mātauranga. Nō reira, he nui te mana o ngā kura rōia ki runga i a ia tāngata o te ao ture, mai i ngā rōia ki ngā kaiwhakawā hoki. E takotoria ana e ngā kura rōia te tūāpapa o te whare ture, me ngā kete mātauranga o ngā tauira. 

 

Kei ngā kura rōia te tangata e ako ai i te tika, i te hē, e ai ki tā te ture e whakatau ai. Kei reira hoki te tangata e ako ai te take e mea ana kei te tika tētahi mea, kei te hē tētahi. Mehemea ka riro katoa ēnei akoranga ki tā te Pākehā e whakatau ai mō te tika rānei, mō te hē rānei, koirā tā te tangata e ako ai, arā te momo tika, me te momo hē ki tā te Pākehā e whakatau ai tē ako ai i te whakaaro Māori mō te tika rānei, mō te hē rānei. Heoi anō, ko te hua o te whakatau nei a te CLE, mā reira te whakaaro o te tangata mō te tika, mō te hē e whakawhānuitia ai i runga i te urunga o ngā tikanga Māori. Mā tēnei whakatau a te CLE te ako i ngā āhuatanga o te ture e whakawhānuitia ai. E ai ki a Tā Joseph Williams, “learning tikanga Māori liberates the minds of common lawyers so they can see the wharenui where they once only saw a colonial villa.” Nō reira, ehara i te mea he painga tēnei whakatau ki ngā tauira Māori anake. Mā te ako i ngā tikanga Māori e whakawhānui ai te māramatanga o ngā tauira katoa o te ture.

 

Ka huri aku kōrero ki ngā hua o te ako i ngā tikanga Māori. E mōhio nei te nuinga o tātou, he kopī ngā tikanga Māori. Mā tēnei whakatau a te CLE, e taea ai ngā kura rōia ki te wānanga me te whai pānga i ngā tikanga Māori. Mā te wānanga, mā te tautohe, mā te kōrero, mā te whai whakaaro hoki ki roto i ngā kura e whakapakari ai ngā tikanga Māori. Heoi anō, kāore e kore ko te marae te kāinga tūturu o ngā tikanga Māori. Me āta haere ngā kura rōia ki ngā tikanga Māori kia kore ai e whati i ngā tikanga Māori. Ki ōku whakapono, mā te ngākaupono e kōkiri ai ngā tikanga Māori ki roto i ngā kura rōia, otirā, ki roto i te ao ture whānui. Ko te tūmanako ia ka akiaki tēnei whakatau a te CLE ki ngā tāngata o te ao ture ki te whakaputa ki waho i ngā hapori kia ākona, kia mārama rātou ki ngā tikanga o ngā marae, ngā hapū, ngā iwi hoki. Mā reira hoki e whāngai ngā hononga i waenganui i te ao ture me te ao Māori.  

 

Kāore e kore ka ara ake pea ētahi raru e hāngai ana ki te hanumitanga o ngā tikanga Māori me te ture ki roto i ngā kura. Ko te kore mōhio o ngā kaiako rōia ki ngā tikanga Māori, koirā tētahi take e puta ai ngā raruraru nei. Koirā tetahi take e kore ai e tupu ngā kaupapa Māori ki roto i te ao ture. E mea ana ahau me tahuri ngā kaiako kia ako, kia tupu tō rātou mōhiotanga ki ngā tikanga Māori. Kāore au i te whakaae kia waiho ēnei mahi ki te hunga Māori anake ki roto i ngā kura rōia. I ēnei wā, he nui rawa ngā rauemi e kōrero ana mō ngā tikanga Māori. Arā, kei te Taraipiunara o Waitangi he nui ngā kōrero ā-tuhi, ā-waha hoki e pā ana ki ngā kawa me ngā tikanga ā-iwi. Kei te Kōti Whenua Māori hoki ngā kōrero a ngā take whenua Māori me ōna tikanga. Tahuri atu ki ngā tuhingaroa, arā, ko ngā kōrero a Tāmihana Te Rauparaha, Rev. Māori Marsden, Hirini Moko Mead. Nā rātou i āta whiriwhiri ēnei mea ko ngā tikanga Māori. Ā kāti, kei ngā waiata, kei ngā haka, kei ngā karakia, kei ngā pūrākau, kei ngā whakataukī ngā kōrero mō ngā tikanga Māori. Nō reira, he hohonu ngā rauemi kia whakapakari ai te mōhio a ngā tauira, ngā kaiako hoki ki ngā tikanga Māori.  

 

Ko te kore mōhio o ngā kaiwhakawā ki ngā tikanga Māori, koirā hoki tētahi raru. Pērā me ngā kaiako, me tahuri hoki ngā kaiwhakawā kia ako, kia tupu tō rātou mōhiotanga ki ngā tikanga Māori e pai ai tā rātou whiriwhiri i ngā kaupapa Māori ki mua i ngā kōti. Mā reira hoki e pai ai te manaaki a ngā kōti i ngā take ka puta i ngā hapori, i ngā iwi. Ko te tikanga ia me mārama ngā kaiwhakawā ki ngā āhuatanga, ki ngā tikanga o ngā hapori o ngā iwi e pai ai tā rātou whiriwhiri i ngā take ka puta i aua hāpori. Mehemea kei te iti te mārama o ngā kaiwhakawā ki ō rātou hāpori, e kore ā rātou whakataunga e tino eke ki te tika, ki te pono e tūmanakotia ana. 

 

.Mōku ake, kua huri taku ao, taku whakakitenga, aku mātāpono hoki i ngā tau i noho ai au ki te kura rōia. Nōku te whiwhi! Hēoi anō, kei te whakapono ahau ka huri pai ngā kura rōia ki te whakauru i ngā tikanga Māori ki te tohu ture. Kia huri te tohu ture, ka huri te whare ture mai i te pō i kōrerotia e Tuta Nihoniho. E mea ana ahau, mā te ao Māori te ture e tōia ai, mai i te pō ki te ao mārama. Nō reira, hei whakakapi i aku kōrero, ānei tāku whakautu ki ngā kupu a Tuta Nihoniho.

 

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